Revolution in Paris overthrows Charles X and brings the
more moderate Louis-
Philippe to the throne. This rebellion sparks off popular revolts across Europe in 1831.
French forces invade Algeria in North Africa to put an end to piracy. They seize the capital, Algiers, but their conquest of the northern region of the country is not completed until 1847.
The French philosopher Auguste Comte, founder of sociology and father to the concept
of positivism, begins work on his six-
The opening of the Liverpool-
Scottish engineer George Stephenson, opens up the Age of the Railway across the world.
The French revolution of July 1830 sparks off popular uprisings across Europe. In Poland,
Germany and Italy they have little or no success, but Belgium gains its independence.
Muhammad Ali of Egypt throws off Turkish rule and conquers Syria, held by the Ottoman
Empire since 1516. However, European powers force him to leave Syria in 1840 (Va).
Having produced the first electric motor, the English physicist Michael Faraday outlines
the principle of electromagnetic induction, and makes the first electric dynamo.
The great French writer Victor Hugo, publishes the first of his well-
The Russian writer Aleksandr Pushkin, the founder of his country’s modern literature, completes his novel Eugene Onegin, and publishes his historical drama Boris Godunov.
The English naturalist Charles Darwin leaves
aboard HMS Beagle on a world
surveying expedition. The five-
The First Reform Act is passed in Britain, extending the franchise and improving the
distribution of parliamentary seats. A Factory Act and a new Poor Law follow in 1833/34.
Slavery is abolished throughout the British
Empire, and the American Anti-
is founded. But it was some 40 years before most European countries had imposed a ban.
Following the death of Ferdinand VII of Spain, his brother, Don Carlos, attempts but fails to seize the throne from Ferdinand’s daughter Isabella
in the savage First Carlist War.
A sermon on the decline of religious faith in England, preached by the Anglican priest John
Keble, launches the Oxford Movement, led by the brilliant theologian John Henry Newman.
The Scottish geologist Charles Lyell completes his Principles of Geology in which he supports Hutton’s “uniformitarianism”, and indirectly influences Darwin’s theory of evolution.
Hokusai finishes his Thirty-
Hiroshige, both exponents of ukiyo-
The English inventor Charles Babbage, having attempted to build a mechanical calculator.
in 1823, conceives the idea of a computer, but his “analytical engine” is never completed.
Six English farm labourers from Dorset -
transported to Australia for forming a trade union aimed at securing higher wages.
The brilliant French realist writer Honoré de Balzac writes Le Père Goriot, a major work in his The Human Comedy, a vast series of some ninety novels and short stories.
The Spanish Inquisition, instituted in 1478 (E4), is finally abolished by a Royal decree, signed by regent Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies during the minority of Isabella II.
The Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen produces the first of his many fairy tales, now known the world over. By 1872 he had published 168 stories, many of his own making.
The English pioneer photographer Fox Talbot, using sensitized paper, makes an image of his house. He and the Frenchman Louis Daguerre make public this method in 1839 (Va).
In the Texan War of Independence, the Texans are defeated by the Mexicans at the siege
of The Alamo and later at Goliad, but finally win their freedom at the Battle of San Jacinto.
The Boers of South Africa begin their Great Trek northwards to escape British rule and
to find new land. They eventually settle in Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
Mr Midshipman Easy is published, one of many adventure stories written by the English seafarer Frederick Marryat. He later wrote the classic tale Children of the New Forest.
The American inventor Samuel Morse produces his electromagnetic telegraph system, together with a code of signals by which messages can be sent over vast distances.
first kindergarten is opened in
Blankenburg, Prussia, by the educator Friedrich
to develop a child’s natural ability, the idea is taken up
William IV is taken ill and dies of a heart condition towards the end of June. Having no children, he is succeeded by his niece, the young Queen Victoria.