A force under Somerset, ably
assisted by the Earl of Warwick (later Northumberland),
defeats the Scots -
Ivan IV is crowned the first Tsar of Russia. He attacks the Tartars in the south, and starts a thorough reform of the administrative and legal systems to bring them under central control.
The Italian Gabriel Fallopius is appointed professor of anatomy at Padua University. He makes discoveries concerning the structure of the inner ear and the female reproductive organs.
The Kett Rebellion breaks out in Norfolk against the enclosure of common land. The revolt, led by Robert Kett and his brother, is easily crushed and the Ketts are hanged.
Edward VI's Book of Common Prayer is published. Largely the work of Cranmer, this and a later edition of 1552 bring greater uniformity to church services throughout the land.
The French poet and writer Joachim Du Bellay publishes the manifesto of La Pléiade, a new school of French poetry based on the classical works of the Greeks and Romans.
The Jesuit priest Francis Xavier, arrives in Japan and, over the next 3 years, establishes a thriving Roman Catholic mission, but he dies in 1552 while attempting to reach China.
The Maoris, a Polynesian people who had been coming to
settle in present-
ThexItalian art historian Giorgio Vasari publishes his The Lives of the Most Excellent Italian Architects, Painters and Sculptors, the work by which he is best known. He is also an accomplished architect.
of the Ming Emperor Chia-
After conquering more land from Persia around Lake Van, the Ottoman Sultan Suleyman I captures Tripoli in North Africa, strengthening his control over the eastern Mediterranean.
The Swiss naturalist Konrad von Gesner begins to write his Historia Animalium, an encyclopedia of the animal world. He is regarded as the founder of the science of zoology.
The Italian Giovanni Palestrina, one of the greatest of Renaissance composers, is made director of music at St. Peter’s, Rome. During a long career, he wrote a vast amount of church music.
The English navigator Richard Chancellor, during an attempt to find a
The Italian author Straparola completes The Pleasant Nights, one of the earliest collections of folk tales. It introduces such stories as Beauty and the Beast and Puss in Boots.
Edward VI dies of consumption,
aged 15. ThexDuke of Northumberland
places his daughter-