xxxxxAs we have seen, by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 (C1), which ended the Thirty Years’ War, Sweden became the dominant nation in the Baltic, a fact reinforced in the 1660s when its warrior king, Charles X Gustav, seized land held by the Danes. But when the young Charles XII came to the throne in 1697, Russia, Saxony-
THE START OF THE GREAT NORTHERN WAR
Map (Sweden): licensed under Creative Commons – maps.thefullwiki.org. Narva: by the Swedish painter Gustaf Cederstrom (1845-
xxxxxAs we have seen, by the Treaty of Westphalia -
xxxxxIn 1655, on a trumped-
xxxxxA golden opportunity to cut Sweden down to size and put an end to her control of the Baltic came in 1697 when Charles XII, a mere lad of 15 years of age, came to the Swedish throne. In 1700 an alliance formed between Russia, Saxony-
xxxxxAugustus II, king of Poland and elector of Saxony, was the next on the list. In the summer of 1701 Charles XII (illustrated) occupied Courland (now in Latvia), drove the Poles out of Livonia and, as we shall see (1702 AN), completed his highly successful campaign by toppling Augustus from his throne. But for the Swedes, the days of such triumph were numbered. In the fullness of time Russia was to wreak revenge for their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Narva.
The Battle of Narva