La France: contemporary cigarette card – to be seen via the Digital Public Library of America, New York Public Library. Jack the Ripper: licensed under Creative Commons – Niagara Falls: licensed under Creative Commons – Flying machine: from


1885  The gas mantle is invented by the Austrian scientist Carl von Welsbach (1858-1929).


The Gotthard Rail Tunnel

-----  nine miles long ----

is opened in Switzerland.

1882 witnesses the death of English cricket following

Australia’s first win at the Oval. This is the start of the

Ashes series between the two countries.

1890 ThexForth Railway Bridge, the world’s first major steel bridge, is opened. Begun in 1883 and one and a half miles long, it spans the Firth of Forth some nine miles west of Edinburgh, Scotland.

1891 CarnegiexHall opens in New York .. andxwork begins on the Trans-Siberian railway.

The Corinth Canal opens to shipping in 1893. Built by a French company,

it separates the region of Peloponnese from the mainland of Greece.

1882  ThexChurch Army is founded by Wilson Carlile (1847-1942), a Church of England curate working in Kensington, London. The following year,  William Smith (1854-1914),

a part- time soldier in Glasgow, Scotland forms The Boys’ Brigade.


AnakxKrakatoa, a  volcano in Indonesia, erupts, killing over 36,000 people.

ThexMetropolitan Opera House opens in New York.

Thexfamous Orient Express makes its first journey from Paris to Istanbul, a 2,000 mile trip which crosses seven frontiers and takes over three days.

1884  ThexUniversal Time

Meridian is put in place.

1884 LaxFrance, the first practical  airship , makes its first fully controlled free flight. Made by two French army engineers, it travels about five miles at a speed of 14 mph.

The first steel-framed skyscraper - ten storeys and 138ft high - is built in Chicago.


The Statue of Liberty, 305ft high, arrives for erection in New York harbour.

The Washington Monument, 555ft high is completed.


1887 Following the work by Edison and Bell, the German scientist Emil

Berliner (1851-1929) comes up with the first disc record gramophone.

1887 sees the first use of contact lenses. Plastic ones are introduced in 1936.

stalks the Whitechapel area of London, killing five prostitutes.

 ­­___ The first railway line is opened in China. ___

ThexAmerican showman Samuel Franklin Cody opens his first Wild West Show.



The anthropologist Francis Galton publishes the first of three books on fingerprints. His method of classifying them is accepted by the courts.

Bookxmatches, introduced by the American inventor Joshua Pusey (1842-1906) start to

become very popular in the United States.

And the Scottish scientist James Dewar

(1842-1923) invents the vacuum or

thermos flask. It goes on sale in 1904.


The immigration station on Ellis Island (in New York harbour)

becomes the gateway to a new life in the New World for the many.

InxBritain the Independent Labour Party is founded by the Scottish politician Keir Hardie (1856-1915). The parliamentary Labour Party follows in 1900.

New Zealand becomes the first country in the world to give the vote to women.



The is founded to care for the coastline, countryside and historic buildings in

England, Wales and Ireland.

1895  A hydroelectric generating station begins production at the Niagara Falls.

1896 -  The are revived in Athens and from then on are held every four years (save for periods of war).

1896 ThexAmericanxinventor Samuel Lanley constructs an unmanned steam-powered flying machine that rises 90ft and travels for

three-quarters of a mile at a speed of 25 miles per hour!

1899  ThexDavis Cup tennis tournament is designed by the American Dwight. F. Davis.


ThexAustrian physician Karl Landsteiner

(1868-1943) discovers the human blood groups.

Queen Victoria lays the foundation stone for the Victoria and Albert Museum in South Kensington, London.


InxEngland, the suffragette Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst

(1858-1928) founds the Women’s Franchise League


1887  ThexPolish musician and (later) statesman Ignancy Jan Paderewski (1860-1941),

one of the greatest pianists of all time, makes his musical debut in Vienna.


The Tate Gallery is opened in London.


The Permanent Court of Arbitration

Is opened at The Hague, Netherlands.