xxxxxAs we have seen, in 1525 (H8) emperor Charles V won the Battle of Pavia against the French, thus gaining control of much of Italy, but throughout his life he struggled to keep his vast lands intact. His most serious enemy were the Ottoman Turks under their able leader Suleyman. They supported the Barbary Pirates along the coast of North Africa, and in 1529 came close to taking Vienna. At home he faced the revolt of the Protestants, and in 1555 was obliged to make a compromise settlement with them at the Peace of Augsburg. The following year, 1556, he abdicated and his son, Philip II, already ruler of the Netherlands and the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, became king of Spain and its overseas territories. Husband of Queen Mary I of England, he gained victories over the French, and seized both the Philippines and Portugal, but, as we shall see, in 1581 (L1) he faced a long-
THE DIVISION OF THE HABSBURG EMPIRE 1556 (M1)
BETWEEN KING PHILIP II OF SPAIN AND EMPEROR FERDINAND I
Map (Europe): licensed under Creative Commons – philipii.wikispaces. com. Charles V: by the Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck (1599-
xxxxxAs we have seen, Charles V, having inherited over a number of years the vast lands of the Habsburgs, struggled to keep them safe from invaders from without and divisions from within. He inherited the Holy Roman Empire from Maximilian I in 1519, and by this time his territories, quite apart from those in central Europe -
xxxxxHe spent the best part of his reign -
xxxxxMeanwhile, Charles was also faced with a serious threat from the Ottoman Turks under their able leader Suleyman I. They came close to taking Vienna in 1529, and their support of the Barbary pirates along the North African coast required a long campaign to restore vital trade routes in the Mediterranean.
xxxxxAt home, faced with the divisions brought about by the Reformation, Charles fared no better. He won the battle of Mühlberg in 1546, but by then the Protestant movement was too firmly established to turn back the clock, and the Princes' War that followed ended in stalemate. At the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, he was obliged to reach a compromise. It was a compromise which brought a measure of peace for some 50 years but, as we shall see, it proved the first step towards the eventual collapse of the Empire in central Europe.
xxxxxIt is hardly surprising then, that in 1556 the Emperor, worn out by his efforts and saddened by his failure to restore the Catholic faith in Germany, decided to abdicate. He divided his vast empire between his brother and son and retired to the monastery of San Jeronimo de Yuste in Estremuda in Spain. He died there two years later. (The portrait is by Van Dyck).
xxxxxHis son Philip, having recently acquired from his father the Netherlands and the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, now became king of Spain as Philip II -
xxxxxFerdinand I (1503-
xxxxxFerdinand I (1503-
xxxxxFerdinand became governor of the duchy of Wurttemberg in 1521, and following the death of his brother-