xxxxxAs we have seen, it was in 1553 (E6) that three ships commanded by Sir Hugh Willoughby attempted to discover a north-
MARTIN FROBISHER c1535 -
Frobisher: detail, by the Dutch painter Cornelis Ketel (1548-
xxxxxAs we have seen, it was in 1553 (E6) that three ships under the command of Sir Hugh Willoughby set out to discover a north-
xxxxxThe search for such a passage having proved unsuccessful, navigators and merchants now turned their attention to the possibility of a north-
xxxxxFrobisher was a Yorkshireman by birth, but he spent his early years in London. In 1544 he went to sea as a cabin boy, and such was his skill and daring -
xxxxxIn 1585, with the rank of vice-
xxxxxAnother English navigator who explored the possibilities of a north-
xxxxxHe commanded the Black Dog during the defeat of the Spanish Armada, and then in 1591 sailed with the English navigator Thomas Cavendish to the South Seas. It was during this voyage that, seeking a passage through the Strait of Magellan, he discovered the Falkland Islands in August 1592. He later sailed with Sir Walter Raleigh to Cadiz and the Azores, and also joined expeditions to the East Indies. It was during his third voyage to the Far East, while making for Sumatra, that he was killed by Japanese pirates off the coast of Singapore.
xxxxxAn accomplished sailor, Davis is also remembered for his writings on seamanship, and for his invention of a modified quadrant, a navigational instrument which bore his name and was still in use in the eighteenth century. It was known popularly as the "back-
xxxxxA further attempt to find a north-
xxxxxMeanwhile, another attempt was made to find a north-
xxxxxDuring his final voyage his two ships became separated, and his own vessel became ice-
xxxxxBarents is the most famous of the early Arctic explorers. Not only did he sail deep into the area and suffer extreme hardship as a consequence, but he also carried out some accurate charting of the region and provided some very valuable data on the changing weather conditions. Later, the Barents Sea and Barents Island were named after him in recognition of his achievements.
xxxxxIncidentally, Gerrit de Veer, one of the men who had survived the long winter with Barents and had returned safely, later wrote an account of these expeditions in a book entitled The Three Voyages of Willem Barents to the Arctic Regions, published in 1598. …… In 1871, Ice Haven, the makeshift hut in which Barents and his men had taken shelter in 1596, was found by a Norwegian whaler, and many of the articles discovered there are now preserved at The Hague. Illustrated here is an artist’s impression of their Het Behouden. In 1875 there was another find when a part of Barents' journal was discovered.
xxxxxIt was around this time that the English navigator John Davis (1550-